Diabetes is diagnosed by either an overnight fasting blood sugar greater than 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or by a blood sugar of 200 mg/dL or greater two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test (GTT).
Two terms are used to describe what used to be called “borderline diabetes.”
Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is a condition in which the fasting blood sugar is elevated between 110 and 125 mg/dL after an overnight fast butis not high enough to be true diabetes.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a condition in which the blood sugar is elevated between 140 and 199 mg/dL after a two-hour glucose challenge.
Among U.S. adults 40-74 years of age, 16 million (15.6 percent) have IGT and 10 million (9.7 percent) have IFG.
If you are diagnosed with either IFG or IGT, consider yourself lucky as it is an early warning, a wake up call. Ignorance of diabetes is anything but bliss.
We screen for diabetes with a 4 hour Glucose Insulin Tolerance Test (GITT). It gives the extra advantage of knowing your insulin and sugar levels. If you’re over 40, obese, have high blood pressure, a family history of diabetes, low energy, excessive thirst or urination, or have slow healing of skin injuries, ask your doctor if you need diabetes screening.